Environmental DNA (eDNA) Technology
Environmental DNA (eDNA) in aquatic environment refers to the free-floating exogenous genetic materials of organisms present in the water, mostly coming from excreted cells/tissues, urine, hairs and skin and dead individuals. The eDNA metabarcoding is a rapid method of biodiversity assessment that allows DNA based species identification implementing high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing technology (Taberlet et al, 2012). It utilizes universal PCR primers to mass-amplify DNA barcodes (genetic markers such as CYT-B, COI, 12S, 16S etc) from the environmental samples such as water collected from river. This technology have recently been used as novel approach to monitor aquatic biodiversity due to its multitude applications.